Midnight Science (2014-2015), Volume 18, Paper 2
Author: Derek Cunningham
Paper Submitted: 29th June 2016, Published: 30th June 2016
In a study of multiple separate art types (stencilled handprints, polygon walls, message sticks, linear geometrics, stones inscribed with “tally” marks and linear grid-type patterns) it is confirmed by a statistical analysis that an archaic geometrical text was used both by an ancient civilisation in Greece and the native aboriginal people of Australia. Analysis of the geometrical text reveals that the two civilisations encoded, in an identical manner, the key astronomical data that astronomers use to predict eclipses. Direct comparison of the various art forms suggests that the methods used to encode this astronomical data into the polygonal walls at Delphi in Greece, and several different art pieces in Australia (some circa 20,000 years old) were also identical to the techniques used in the upper Palaeolithic era geometric images found at Lascaux Cave in France, and the 400,000 year old Palaeolithic-era fan motif found etched on an archaic bone at Bilzingsleben in Germany. This data argues that it is possible to now scientifically compare very dissimilar art types, and to possibly use the astronomical values encoded in Stone Age art to investigate ancient migration paths.
In the author’s prior research study¹, which looked at various highly dissimilar Aboriginal geometric patterns, such as the engraved patterns etched onto cylindrical stones (called cylcons) and various stylistic geometric and handprint paintings, it was determined that geometric images were a form of archaic Stone Age text that encodes, in an angular manner, the astronomical values astronomers used to measure time and predict eclipses. It was also determined that Australian Stone Age art was identical to European Stone Age art found at Lascaux Cave in France, with both the Australian and the European artwork encoding the same angular values.
In this latest study it is now found that the same primary to quaternary values highlighted most often by archaic geometric images found in Europe and in distant Australia are not just similar, they are statistically identical, with the four main astronomical values highlighted by the various dissimilar images typically being (1) the 5.1 degree angle of the moon’s orbital plane relative to Earth; (2) the circa 1 degree sidereal motion of the Earth as it travels around the sun; (3) the 13.66/27.32 day sidereal month used by astronomers to measure time, where 13.66 is the half the duration of the full 27.32 day lunar cycle; and (4) an alignment to 9.3/18.6 degrees which represents the well known 9.3/18.6 year lunar cycle.
Statistically the primary alignments seen in the various images to these four specific astronomical values should not occur if the drawings were random images .
As Plato in his various texts mentions that an ancient, advanced civilisation disappeared circa 11,500 years ago, and it is known that the Greek civilisation was created out of the remains of an older civilisation, and from Plato’s writings it is stated that all knowledge of Greek’s true ancient history had by his lifetime been long forgotten, this current study concentrates first on archaeological sites found in Greece. The primary site chosen for this study was the important region of Delphi, which is linked to the site of the Oracle of Apollo, and the sanctuary of Athena – the Oracle of Apollo, in Greek legend, is linked to the mythical Centre of the World. The data from these two sites at Delphi are then compared to various archaeological artefacts uncovered in both Europe and Australia
In the geometric theory it was previously proposed that various important astronomical values were converted by an ancient Stone Age civilisation to an angular array, and then they encoded these astronomical values into various ancient drawings so that they could be easily read by those who had encoded the values, but would remain entirely “unseen” by those who held no astronomical knowledge.
Recent published data has also shown that the primary astronomical values that are most routinely emphasised as angles in ancient geometrical drawings are the 5.1 degree angle of the moon’s orbital plane relative to Earth; the 9.3/18.6 year lunar cycle; and the 13.66/27.32 day sidereal month that is used by astronomers to measure time. Also present in many ancient drawings is a line offset to close to 1 degree, which marks the circa 1-day sidereal motion of Earth as it travels around the sun.
With emphasis in these recent studies now largely pointing to these four values as being those most central to the ancient civilisations that created this type of artwork, it is now possible to remove the major problem of potential experimental bias from the analysis, because even if bias is fully shown by any researcher in aligning an image to show most of the lines aligning to an angle of 5.1 degrees, if the other geometric lines present in ancient artwork are truly random in nature (as argued by current archaeological theory) the second most to fourth most preferential alignments seen in a statistical study should naturally be entirely random and not preferentially align to the 9.3/18.6 degree pairing, or to the 13.66/27.32 degree pairing – these being two of the secondary values highlighted most often in the prior statistical study of Australian Aboriginal art.
In this new theory, which was developed by the author over the last three and a half years, it is argued that eight astronomical values are routinely encoded in regional art to help astronomers predict both solar and lunar eclipses . In these drawings these values were then drawn as angular values and divided into two groups of four.
The first four standard astronomical values relate to the measurement of time, and are (1) the circa 1° sidereal motion of Earth as it travels around the sun; (2) the 27.32 day (degree) sidereal month, which can also be drawn in ancient art pieces as; (3) its half value of 13.66 days (or degrees); and (4) a value of 11, which equals the difference in days between the solar and lunar years.
The second group of four standard angular values link to the three orbital planes created by the Earth, the Sun and the Moon, and the time period between when they overlap to create nodes. These values are (1) the 6.511 draconic month period between eclipse periods; (2) the 5.14° angle of the moon’s orbital plane relative to Earth’s ecliptic; and (3 & 4) the 9.3/18.6 year lunar cycle, which relates both to the precession of the lunar nodal pattern, and the time between lunar standstills. Together these eight time and nodal values produce what is now termed in the author’s work the eight Standard Values.
Naturally, some regional variations to these eight standard values are seen when looking at data found worldwide. For example, in some cultures a line aligned to 33 days/degrees is more often used than the 11 days/degrees value. This 11 day value, as stated, represents the difference between the solar and lunar years. Here the 33-day value represents the three-year reset period, which is the earliest point in time that astronomers can reset the lunar and solar calendars by adding a lunar month, with each following year there then being an additional 11 day difference between the lunar and solar calendars. Also in some regions (Australia being one) a line at circa 23.6 degrees is frequently found. This may relate to the angle of the Earth’s axial tilt. Finally another prominent regional angular value routinely seen in some regional art pieces is a line drawn at either 3 degrees, or plausibly 3.14 degrees. These three angular regional values are termed Class 1 alignments.
Next are values that appear more geometrical in nature. These are line drawn at 0, 15, 30, 36, and 45 degrees. These are termed Class 2 alignments.
Finally the last category covers angular values that are unique to the art piece being studied, or are values seldom seen in astronomical art. This includes values that continue a series, and the astronomical values relating to the Metonic Cycle. These are termed Class 3 values. This category also includes any angular values not listed above. Therefore, theoretically, there exists a far greater probability that a line will randomly align to the Class 3 category than to any of the other three categories.
In general it should be noted that the division of lines into these various classes is designed to minimise the possibility that a studied archaeological sample will, by chance alone, align to the “Standard Astronomical Value” category, and thus by chance that the lines should align frequently to the same top four values within this category.
Analysis of the Polygonal Walls Found at The Temple of Apollo and The Sanctuary of Athena at Delphi
It is interesting to note, before starting this analysis of the Polygonal Walls at Delphi, that archaeologists working at the Delphi site have shown no interest in analysing the angular distribution described by the many polygonal patterns found there. For example, the geometric pattern clearly seen in the floor of the Theatre beside Apollo’s Temple is considered by the museum staff to simply be a very uninteresting sub-floor that would have supported what they believe would have been a far more interesting and now missing decorated floor. Thus, as far as I am aware, no detail map of the geometric floor pattern has ever been published, nor is there any aerial view of the pattern available that could support an independent ground study.
Because I found that preliminary attempts to take photographs of each individual stone slab used to create the Delphi Theatre floor is complicated by distortions in several of the camera images, which were caused by some the photographs being taken too close to the surface of the floor, it is not possible to provide here a preliminary study of the angular alignments generated by the Delphi Theatre floor. However, it is hoped that a future study will be undertaken.
Therefore, this preliminary study of ancient Greek geometrics will concentrate only on the polygonal walls (known as Polygonal Masonry) found at Delphi.
Overall the polygonal walls at Delphi appear visually very similar to the polygonal walls seen at Saksaywaman in Peru, with the preliminary study of the remnant showing angular values very similar to those seen in the author’s prior Saksaywaman. This may suggest the angular values drawn by the wall are an archaic form of astronomical text, with the same geometrical values also creating the lines making up the body and head of the Atacama Giant in Chile.
To assist the analysis of the large polygonal wall located in front and below the Temple of Apollo multiple photographs of the wall were taken to remove potential distortions in the obtained camera images. As an earthquake resulted in a circa 2 degree change in orientation of the wall relative to the horizontal, the entire wall was then treated as “mobile art”, and a circa 2 degree shift in the orientation of the wall entered into the calculation. When this was done the regions where the stones of the wall create, to the viewer looking at the pattern, a linear array the majority of the observed lines drawn by the polygonal stones align to 5.1 degrees with alignments offset either to the horizontal or vertical.
This preferred alignment to 5.1 degrees is an important initial result, as this preference to a 5.1 degree alignments agrees with the author’s prior study of Australian Stone Age artwork, which show that Australian art frequently aligns to 5.1 degrees. So with the primary alignment defined interest now turns to the important secondary to quaternary values to see if they also match the values seen in Australian Artwork.
As current theory insists the walls were formed using random building blocks, with each block formed with absolutely no astronomical intent, it is now logical to assume that if current theory is correct and the stone masonry is purely random in design, then the observed secondary to quaternary values should not overlap with the angular values extracted from older Australian geometric artwork.
However, if the author’s contention that an ancient Stone Age Civilisation did map the shape of the Earth’s continents using the stars is correct, then the secondary to quaternary values should accurately overlap.
To begin, within the Delphi complex there are two walls that exhibit a sufficient number of lines that statistical studies can be reasonably undertaken. The first is the polygonal wall located under the Temple of Apollo and the second polygonal wall is beside the temple of Athena, at the smaller Delphi site known as the Sanctuary of Athena. At this secondary site the majority of the alignments drawn by this wall also appear to align, to a viewer looking at the wall from afar, to 5.1 degrees; and agreeing with the earlier study of Australian artwork the alignments are offset to either the horizontal or the vertical.
Here it is possible that the angles shown by the offsets may reflect a consonant sound and the angle of the offset the vowel sound, thus creating a basic, but readable text.
Images of the wall of Athena, and the polygonal wall under the Temple of Apollo are shown below, alongside a table showing the angles visually drawn by the individual stone blocks.
Image 1a. A picture showing part of the central section of the Polygon Wall located in front of and under the Temple of Apollo at Delphi. As the view moves away from the centre of the field of view of the camera the apparent angles that the lines appear to visually draw slowly changes. Therefore, it was required to take multiple pictures along the entire length of the wall to obtain a useable set of data. It should be noted that the wall contains several polygonal stones that are constructed from both curves and straight lines.
Figure 1b above. A drawing showing the angular values extracted from the left part of the Polygonal wall located under the Temple of Apollo at Delphi. The rightmost section of this image overlaps with the leftmost part of the photograph shown previously in image 1a.
Image 2 above. Author’s picture of the Polygon Wall found at the Sanctuary of Athena. This part of the complex is identified as part of the “Priest’s House”. As with the Apollo wall it was found that the majority of the lines are offset to either 5.1 degrees from the vertical, or 5.1 degrees offset from the horizontal.
Table 1. Comparison of the angular alignments drawn by the polygonal stone walls at the Temple of Apollo and the Sanctuary of Athena and Delphi.
As can be seen, despite the very simplistic nature of the analysis, where various astronomical lines are simply compared with the observed angles drawn by the wall, the majority of the angular alignments are from the Standard Astronomical Series, with Class 1 lines (which are largely an extension of the Standard Series) being the next most commonly seen values. Most alignments in the class 2 and 3 categories align to 30, 36 40 and 45 degrees. In addition, it is noted that the most frequent alignments seen at the Polygonal wall located at the Sanctuary of Athena are the overall the exact same as those seen in the wall located under Temple of Apollo. This suggests the two walls were created at the same time and to the same astronomical design.
At first glance the results also agree very well with the author’s prior analysis of circa 20,000 year old linear art found in Australia, and the geometric images found at Lascaux Cave in France, which at a minimum are at least circa 14,000 years old with overall the same primary to quaternary angular values seen in all studied samples.
As the Australian study is so important to this particular analysis the prior data for the Australian Cylcon is presented below. As stated the intent here is not just to see which angles appear in the observed wall pattern, but to see which values appear most frequently, with the aim here being to specifically see if the Australian patterns were created to the exact same design as artwork found in Greece.
On the first face of an Australian cylcon, currently held in the collection of Martin Schøyen and discovered by shearing contractor Peter Manoel at High Delalan in New South Wales, Australia, 100 lines were analysed. The lines orientate to 18 different angular values, with the angular offsets again measured to both the horizontal and the vertical . A detailed study of the ratios obtained reveals that 80 (80.00%) of the lines present on the front face (the other two sides analysed in the earlier study are not presented here) align to values from the Standard Astronomical series, with 66 lines (66.00%) of all the lines studied aligning to just four angles. These four angular values are 1.0° (15 times) 5.1° (19 times), 9.3° (17 times), and 13.66° (15 times). The 9.3°, and 13.66° alignments are half-values relating to two different orbital periods of the moon.” As stated earlier the purpose of using these for categories was to minimise the probability that even a preferentially aligned sample would, by chance, align to these specific Standard Astronomical Values.
Figure 3. An image of a heavily engraved Australian Cylcon dated to be circa 20,000 years old.
Here the most important result is, once again, an emphasis to these four very specific astronomical values (the circa 1 degree motion of earth round the sun, the 5.1 degree angle of the moon’s orbital plane, the 18.6 year lunar cycle and the 27.32 day sidereal month). In this case these values are not just “similar to” the values extracted from the Apollo Temple Wall, they are identical. In both cases the preferred alignments shown by the polygon walls found at Greece and the engraved Cylcon found in Australia are to 1,0°, 5.1°, the 9.3/18.6 lunar cycle and the 13.66 /27.32 degree sidereal month. These are the astronomical values used to measure longitude, and to predict eclipse events.
Completing the study of the Australian Cylcon, the remaining 20 angular values on side 1 were found to belong to Classes 1, 2, and 3, and within these three classes 14 lines belong to Class 1, so can be considered to be simple modifications of the Standard Values. Thus, at the orientation selected, 94.00% of the lines align to astronomical values that are routinely seen in linear art found worldwide. Only two lines belong to the Class 2 category, and just four belong to the Class 3 category, the largest category.
Table 2. Analysis of Australian Cylcon uncovered at High Delalan NSW, Australia. For this analysis side 1 was rotated until it produced an optimum alignment. Sides 2 and 3 were analysed in a blind study using the orientation set by the analysis of side 1. The highest percentage of lines align to 1°, 5.1°, 9.3° and 13.66°.
Analysis of an Australian Engraved Stone and its similarity to a 400,000 year old engraved bone found at Bilzingsleben Germany
One of the more unusual visual pieces of evidence gathered in this particular study was an engraved stone found in Australia that replicates a geometrical pattern discovered in Bilzingsleben Germany. The Australian stone was discovered by Jennifer Summerville
As can be seen the engraved Australian stone creates a fan motif that is constructed using the same angular data found on extremely ancient elephant tibia bones recovered from the Bilzingsleben Archaeological site in Germany. The Bilzingsleben bones are currently estimated to be between 300,000 to 400,000 years old.
Equally intriguing, the exact same angular values can be found in the various geometric images found in Lascaux Cave. These geometrics are at a minimum circa 13,000 years old.
I believe that the discovery by Jennifer of this particular stone provides the final piece of evidence required to confirm that an ancient worldwide link did exist in the deep Stone Age. Specifically, not only does the Australian pattern show an image that aligns to the same astronomical values seen in the 400,000 year old Bilzingsleben tibia bone.
As the alignment of the secondary, tertiary and quaternary alignments are so important for this particular research project I also decided to republish in this study my prior analysis of handprint art found at Carnarvon Archaeological site in Australia. Here it is noted that many caves in Europe contain unexplained handprint art, but as yet these European handprint images have not been studied in detail.
For this specific study 23 Australian handprints in the Carnarvon painting were analysed. Contained within these 23 handprints are 86 measurable alignments created using the fingers. Here the angular distribution created using the fingers is limited by the specific need for the lines to create a well defined focal point at the centre of each handprint. These 86 lines then create various lines that originate from the focal point drawn by each handprint. Two handprints, W located towards the lower right side of the pattern, and handprint “I”, which is a rare handprint that also contains an image of the persons arm, appeared anomalous in the preliminary study and failed to create well-defined hidden focal points. These two handprints were thus considered to be added secondary images that were not part of the original drawing. As with other prior studies the author has undertaken all alignment offsets are measured to either the horizon, or the vertical, and thus the image exhibits a 90° rotational symmetry.
Figure 2. Handprint art found at the Carnarvon archaeological site. Here the values extracted from the hidden focal points on this wall found in Australia largely replicate those extracted from the polygonal walls at Delphi in Greece, with the only difference being the 1 degree alignment is replaced by a greater preference to an alignment of 3 degrees. Original image provided courtesy of Don Hitchcock, donsmaps.com.
Table 3. Analysis of the angular alignments presented by drawn focal points created by the handprints at the Carnarvon Petroglyph Site. In this sample the four most common alignments are to 3°, 5.1°, 13.66°, and 18.6°.
A more detailed explanation for this diagram is provided in my previous study, but in brief it was found that within the 34 lines studied that appear original to the drawing 88.24% of the lines aligned to either Standard, or Class 1 alignments, 8.82% align to Class 2 alignments and only one single anomalous line (drawn at 38 degrees) belongs to class 3. The values extracted from the hidden focal points on this wall found in Australia thus replicate those extracted from the polygonal walls at Delphi in Greece, with the only difference being the 1 degree alignment is replaced by a greater preference to an alignment to 3 degrees. In total 15 lines out of 34 (which is equivalent to 44.12% of the total) align to 5.1, 13.66 and 18.6 degrees. These again being the primary values recorded by the polygonal walls at the temple of Delphi. The 9.3/18.6 pair and the 13.66/27.32 pair reflect (a) the half and full values of the lunar nodal cycle and (b) the sidereal month used by astronomers to measure time. Clearly this overlap in angular orientation would again not be expected if the image was entirely random in design.
Comparison to artwork found at Lascaux Cave
As this is a study comparing ancient artwork found in Australia with artwork found in Europe; and Australia is known from detailed DNA studies to have become isolated from the rest of the world approximately 50,000 years ago, it seems worthwhile to compare Australian artwork to some of the earliest known artistic drawings found in Europe. Again the Lascaux Cave images were analysed prior to this particular study, so the data is replicated here to assist the reader.
Intriguingly within the linear geometric found in Lascaux Cave, 49 out of 52 lines (94.23%) align to the Standard List, 2 lines (3.85%) align to Class 1 values, and just 1 line (1.92%) aligns to Class 3 values. Within the Standard list 6 lines align to 5.1 degrees, 17 lines to the 13.66/27.32 degree pair and 21 lines to the 9.3/18.6 degree pair – all angles are again taken as offsets to the horizontal and vertical axes. These three central astronomical terms account for 84.62% of all alignments seen in the Lascaux geometrics.
Fig. 4. Examples of Lascaux Cave geometrics. Overall the alignment distribution shows a remarkable similarity to the angular values drawn by Australian geometric images.
Here the only real difference between the Lascaux Cave image and the data extracted from the polygonal walls at Delphi, is whereas the Delphi Walls emphasise the 13.66 half-sidereal month value, the geometrical patterns found in Lascaux cave primarily emphasise the 27.32 degree/day full-sidereal month value. This is a small difference. Both values plot the sidereal month value but one prefers the half lunar value, and the other the full month value.
It was claimed previously in the author’s book that a worldwide civilisation existed in the Stone Age and that this advanced civilisation created a world map to help them navigate to distant shores.
Naturally this is a controversial claim, but this theory of an archaic world map based on the stars does successfully accounts not only for the location of many ancient religious sites, but also the layout of the Great Pyramids of Giza and the complex geometric patterns seen in pendents discovered in Russia. The proposed map also has uncovered numerous previously unknown geoglyph fields worldwide, and even a site that appears at first glance to be entirely consistent with Atlantis. It also explains the non-circular nature of stone circles, and the stone lines that sometimes pierce their centres.
Over the last 3 years I have thus systematically studied many geometrics found worldwide in an attempt to uncover the Stone Age text that would logically be required to support this worldwide civilisation, and because a detailed study of the proposed star map suggests a deep Stone Age timeframe, the text also had to date to the exact same deep Stone Age timeframe.
Before these studies no Stone Age text was known to exist, so the challenge to find any data resembling an ancient Stone Age text must be considered an extremely difficult text.
The geometric lines described here in this study are important, because not only do they show a common worldwide method for documenting astronomical data, they appear in the Stone Age and the astronomical values contained in these studies show clear evidence that the civilisation held the required mathematical knowledge to measure time and longitude.
As the lines mark the astronomical values used to measure time and longitude, they also exhibit the minimum level of mathematical and astronomical knowledge required to create a world map, and thus at all points the author’s hypothesis that the Great Pyramids of Giza align the stars to create a simple but effective map of the world does now appear valid. At a bare minimum all the key pieces of evidence required to support the working theory are now present.
What is becoming clear is the many geometric patterns found worldwide are no longer random. If they were random, as standard theory proposes, then the secondary and tertiary alignment values should logically also be random, and not show any strong preference to the sidereal month, or the 18.6 year lunar cycle. Instead, what is found is that the values recorded are consistent with data extracted from other archaeological sites.
As always further studies are required. It will be interesting to see if, similar to the prior study of Australian artwork, optical effects were being employed to produce “visual” alignments to the key astronomical values at Delphi. However, even without this data, to date close to 100 separate experimental studies have been undertaken and the data now clearly argues that an ancient Great Stone Age civilisation did once exist.
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