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Midnight Science (2011-2012), Volume 2, Paper 4
Paper Submitted: 18th April 2011, Published (Preview Mode): 21st April 2011
Updated: 18th Aug 2011
Author: Derek Cunningham
In this study the Japanese language is used in an attempt to translate various words in the Hebrew Bible. This attempt was prompted by previous studies that revealed the constellations surrounding the asterism “The Summer Triangle” maps the stars to the shape of the continents of Earth, and that the angle of orientation required to create this star map overlay is encoded in the Great Pyramids of Giza (2). Additional studies since then have identified a possible link to the area of Irkutsk in Russia, where the modified “North Pole” region would ancient have been drawn. At this location is a large geoglyph field was discovered (5). As linguistic studies suggest that the Japanese language (which is tungustic) is related to languages spoken in Turkey (53,54), it was decided here to undertake a study to determine if there is any possibility of an ancient 11,000 year old link between Japanese and Hebrew. The data presented here appears to supports previous linguistic work that suggest many world languages have an upper paleolithic-era origin; and suggests that anciently the area of Irkutsk was probably an important religious center, with links to both the Mediterranean and East Asia.
Some evidence exists that ancient societies around the world perhaps understood human psychology to a much higher degree than we normally give them credit for. The widespread division of societies into four distinct groups probably first occurred in the “stone age” at the time population started to increase and small civilizations first began with groups larger than a few hundred people. Within these societies would have existed (1) the restless warriors, (2) religious leaders (who through their study of the night sky would perhaps have doubled as early scientists), (3) mercantile merchants, and (4) builders. In fact, if one sees an overlap with modern civilization, that is not really surprising. The division matches the different social groups present within all societies. The Warrior is impulsive and driven by a constant need to take risks, the religious or scientific leaders are those who are more thoughtful and will concentrate for long periods on one problem, the Merchants are a mix of the above, and the builders are the equivalent of todays workers. In many ways each group develops almost naturally, and the presence of each group is ultimately important for the society to survive. It is thus also unsurprising that cultures throughout the centuries all appear similar.
Of the four groups just described, perhaps the one with the longest lasting influence is the religious group; in fact unless a civilization is totally destroyed, a religious culture always last much longer than military-based empires. This means that over thousands of years a religion can be used to trace the paths of related civilizations over thousands of years, whereas pottery and other artifacts can only be used to trace a civilization for perhaps a few hundred years at most.
This “traceability” of religious beliefs over thousands of years is important, because the aim of this study is to try to use a circa 12,000 year old stellar map to connect two modern civilizations; the Japanese and the People of Israel (see work by Joseph Eidelberg (53) for previous work in this field).
The background rests on the discovery of an ancient stellar map (1-8), that appears to highlight areas where the earliest civilizations first arose. The map uniquely has managed to explain the layout of the Great Pyramids (2); discover a new geoglyph field in Russia (4,5); creates a link between ancient Greek and Chinese astronomy (5); and the data overlaps the location of primary stars with the location of major religious centers such as Mecca (2) This suggests that, if the hypothesis of an ancient 11,000 to 14,000 years old star map mapping the location of ancient civilizations is correct, other areas marked in the Earth-star map should also be equally important.
One location highlighted by the map is the Tunguska region, marked by the presence of globular cluster M92 (an ancient north pole “star” postion circa 11,500 years ago). This region is dominated by a large geoglyph field that is both repeatedly “pointed to” by other various geoglyph fields around the world (1,8), and also points to other possible geoglyph fields, such as the unusual set of lines drawn over Nullarbor Plain in Australia (4,5).
The Tunguska area is considered, from linguistic studies, to be a possible location for the original home of the Japanese people, see work of Philip Johan von Strahlenberg, and Juha Janhunen and many others. So, given the previous studies by Joseph Eidelberg (53) that suggest an ancient link between the Japanese language and ancient Hebrew, and the connection between the Great Pyramids and the alignmet of the star map, it appeared natural to see if any ancient Hebrew words in the Bible might be open to translation using the Japanese language.
The basic premise of this work is that because the Japanese language is Asiatic and comprises of very short single consonant words, it is perhaps possible that the short Japanese words can be used to construct the longer words seen in the Judaic Bible. Ancient Hebrew is also based upon a pictorial writing system, though the meaning of the individual letters constructing the larger words are now forgotten.
The result of this test is a potentially consistent translation for the various words used for GOD in the Hebrew Bible, and suggests that the difference between the five versions of the word GOD (YHWH, Adonai, Ehyeh, Eru and Erah) occurs in the mobility of the elements, Earth, Fire, Water and Air. Attempts to translate other words taken at random from the Hebrew Bible also produce reasonable translations. However, as the number of words employed in this test is extremely limited, further work is clearly required to confirm the proposed connection.
Within religious texts it is clear that, even where a common story occurs, the names of the key participants sometimes change; or in some cases multiple names are used to represent the same person.
In Hebrew texts there is several words used to represent GOD, and much debate has occurred amongst those who study the Bible as to their use and their meaning.
In the Bible YHWH is the second creation name of God. The first name is Elohim. Its precise pronunciation is not known as there is no vowels in ancient Hebrew -see Joel M. Hoffman A Short History of the Hebrew Language. Thus any attempt to translate this word using Japanese must consider all 5 vowels whenever possible.
The first “problem” faced in translating the word YHWH is that in Japanese there is no word that starts with the letter Y, but this restriction refers only to modern Japanese and not to Old Japanese. The pronunciation of the letter Y resembles the Old Japanese pronunciation Phi, or Phyee, which over time became the initial consonant in the word Hi, pronounced Hee (for fire/sunlight) in modern Japanese text. The next issue is that the letter W or V also does not normally appear in modern Japanese. But in Japanese the pronunciation of Wo and Ho are phonetically similar, and today the word Ha is still often spoken as Wa. But with the letter W in JHWH also written as V, the balance is more towards the “V/Ph” pronunciation if the Japanese connection is considered valid, a possible translations for YHVH into Japanese is then.
Hi (Phee) = 火/日/灯 = Fire/Sun/Light
Ho = 圃 = Farm/Land
Hu/Vu = 風 = Wind (alternative Yu 湯 for boiling water)
Ha = 波 = Wave/Water
The feature noticeable in the above list is that all four words describe the four elements Fire, Earth, Water and Air. But there is a feature of “movement” contained in each translation. Water is described in the form of a wave (water in motion), land is described by farmland (Earth being “transformed” into trees), Air is described by wind (Air in motion), and fire as sunlight (light in motion). Assuming for now that the above translations are valid, when the above readings are combined, the word obtained is PheeHoVuHa.
As stated above, In the Hebrew Bible, GOD is given several names. The next four major names given for GOD are Adonai, Ehyeh, Eru and Erah. A hypothesis based on the initial translation given above is that if Jehovah (YHWH (YHVH)) is the presence of the four elements in motion, the alternative GOD names Adonai, Ehyeh, Eru and Erah might be the presence of the four elements in static form. Translations using Japanese seem to support this hypothesis.
The first alternative name of Jehovah (YHWH (YHVH)) is given as Adonai. In Japanese this can translates to 惠土 根 Bestowing Earth + Cause. The first component in Adonai “e” (pronounced Ay in Japanese) can be written as 惠 and contains the joined meaning of Bestow, Kindness and Mercy. The second component of the word Adonai “do” corresponds to the character 土 for Earth (a static Element). The last component ”ne” (pronounced Nay) corresponds to the character 根 which contains the meaning cause or source.
The second alternative name for Jehovah (YHWH (YHVH)) in Judaism is Ehyeh. This translates to 惠湯 根 = Bestowing Water + Cause. The first component Eh “e” (pronounced Ay as in “Hay” in Japanese) is again written as 惠 and thus has the meaning of Bestow, Kindness and Mercy. The second component of the word Yeh ”yu” corresponds to the character 湯 for boiling water/steam (a static or moving Element). The translation of Yu to boiling water/steam suggests a link to the Shinto ritual dance, the Ise Kagura, that has Shugendo origins that date back into the oldest history of the Shinto religion. It is noteworthy that in ancient Shinto dances, the actual possession of the “Kami” was required. The impression from this analysis is that fog (steam in its natural form) was a visual appearance of one of the major “Kamis”.
The third alternative for Jehovah (YHWH (YHVH)) is Eru. Eru translates to “Bestowing Air”. Once more ”e” (pronounced Ay in Japanese) is written as 惠 and contains the joined meaning of Bestow, Kindness and Mercy. But in the word Eru there is no indication in Hebrew of the length of time one pronounces the word “e”. If it is short the meaning is fixed at 惠, but if the pronunciation if “e” is long then the word can be written as E(e)ru. This is important as this adds an additional character in Japanese to the word. The word E(e)ru is then written as 惠空 + “ru”, with 空 the Japanese character for the element “Air”, creating the phrase “the God that Bestows Air”. The air element in this description is a static Element. The translation of third component in the word Eeru “Ru” is uncertain.
In the fourth version of YHWH (YHVH) an Aramaic word “Erah” is used for GOD in the Judaic text. The Aramaic word, produced no reasonable translation.
Another alternative form for GOD in Judaic text is Shalom, which is often used in greetings. Using Japanese, Shalom translates to “Think/dreams of Ancient Truth/Purity”, from the characters Shya (真 Pure/truth/genuine), and rou (老 = Ancient), and Mu which has multiple meanings including “to dream”.
To test further the theory that words in the Judaic Bible can be translated using Japanese, we need to look to other words to see if plausible and consistent translations occur. In the Bible, one word draws attention as it relates to the Tribe of Dan, which some believe ultimately moved to Scotland/Ireland. This is considered important as Scotland in the world map is the start point for the Milky Way in the Glaobla star map overlay that creates a simply but reasonable map of Earth (2). In Scotland there are also a number of potential geoglyphs that appear to replicate the layout of teh Great Pyramids of Giza and can be used to locate the Tunguska geoglyph site in Irkutsk (1-5). Analysis of star motion over time suggests the sites, if they are true geoglyphs, must be circa 14,000 years old (2).
In the Bible, the boats used by the Tribe of Dan were described by Moses by the word Tarshish. The word Tarshish has been extensively studied but has so far defied meaningful translation. The closest to a translation is the suggestion that the word can mean both a place, or a type of ship.
Tarshish, in Japanese, translates to 舵 櫓 紫 主 TaRoShiShyu, The Master’s/Lord’s, Purple, Oar, Rudder boat. In this translation there is the word Purple 紫 (the colour associated with Royalty and the Phoenician fleet), and the words 舵 Rudder (which contains a double character comprising also the word boat), and Oar 櫓 (which suggests the method of propelling the craft is mainly by oars and not sails). This translation from Japanese is an almost perfect description of a large ship of the Phoenician type. If the translation of Master/Lord is assumed to be incorrect and 糸 (pronounced Shi) for thread/silk is used to represent a sail, the translation becomes Rudder, Oar, Purple Sail Boat But the reading would then be TaRoShiShi, a pronunciation that does not sound entirely accurate. The translation TaRoShiShyu (Lord’s boat), phonetically, is more accurate.
Looking to the word Eden in Genesis, a simple translation is obtained using Chinese (which historically is related to Japanese), Yi is the character for “ONE” and Dian is used to represent “HEAVEN”. Eden thus translates to One Heaven, a translation that appears perfectly plausible.
Discussion and Conclusions
The hypothesis of a connection between Hebrew and Japanese came initially from the location of globular cluster M92 in the Tunguska/Irkutsk region of Russia, as described in the Cygnus Earth Map (1-5). This region (Irkutsk) is highlighted by alignment lines created from geoglyph fields in Nazca in Peru, and various “potential” sites in Scotland. With the discovery of a major Nazca-type geoglyph field in Irkutsk (4,5) this suggests that this area was once of great importance.
To identify if any link between the Japanese language and Hebrew could existed, several preliminary translations were attempted with each word taken from the Judaic bible. One word for God, “Erah”, is Aramaic in origin and produced no plausible translation using the Japanese language. In contrast, the four Hebrew words for God contained in the Bible produced reasonable translations, with each apparently involving the four basic elements Fire, Earth, Air, and Water. The translation of the primary name for YHVH (usually pronounced Jehovah, or VeeHoFuHa in Japanese) adds a time component to the four elements. Hi (“Phee” in old Japanese) = Light (effectively fire in motion), Ho = Farm/Land (which suggests the transformation of Earth into Trees/Plants), Fu = Wind (the Air in motion) and lastly Ha = Waves (Water in motion). The other three Hebrew names of God are E(e)ru, pronounced Ayru, is apparently related to the creation of Air; Ehyeh with the creation of Water; and Adonai the creation of Earth. It is assumed that Erah (the only Aramaic name used) is associated with Fire.
The last word analyzed was Tarshish (used in reference to the Tribe of Dan boarding a ship of Tarshish). The direct translations of Tarshish to a “Purple rowing boat with steering oar” is considered to be strongest evidence obtained to date in support of a proposed Japanese/Israel link, but the data is still preliminary and further tests are required. Once concern is that the word Tarshish is found in some text which creates a suggestion that Tarshish is a place name and not a boat. The reason for this inconsistency is beyond the subject of this paper.
When one looks at the translations for the secondary words used for GOD, two words E(e)ru, pronounced Ayru, and Adonai (pronounced Aydonai) create apparent links to the Germanic/English language.
The translation of E(e)ru to one that bestows air, may arguably have produced the English word “AIR”.
“Aydo”, the first part of the Judaic name for God used in reference to the creation of Earth, is similar to the German word “ERDE”. Erde become the word “Earth” in English.
Assuming that all these translations are valid, it can be argued that the apparent development of alternative names of GOD into the modern words for the four elements, suggests the Angles (who invaded England in the 5th century AD) may also have the same ancient pre-historic ancestral root as the Japanese and the Israelites.
It is well known that the Ancient Hebrew writing contains no vowels, and thus contains no phonetic clues. For this reason translations from, and to other European languages are usually unsuccessful. In contrast Japanese and Chinese do not always require vowels for a reasonable guess of a word’s pronunciation to be made. The employment of one single consonant for each word in the Japanese language coupled to the pictorial nature of the Japanese and Chinese languages could make the two Asian languages perfect, if not ideal, for reconstructing the core meaning of the Hebrew words. Further work is clearly required to reanalyze the data, with a detailed comparison of any documented variations in the core words over time.
- D. Cunningham, Scotland and the Cygnus Constellation, Midnight Science Vol. 1 (2011-2012), Paper 1.
- D. Cunningham, The Cygnus Star Map, The Giza Pyramids and their Link to Scotland, Midnight Science Vol. 1 (2011-2012), Paper 2.
- D. Cunningham, Analysis of the Giza Pyramid Star Map: A Search for Ancient Art, Midnight Science Vol. 1 (2011-2012), Paper 3.
- D. Cunningham, Alignment Lines and the Three Constellations: Use of the Nazca Drawings, and the Proposed Geoglyph Field in Scotland to Locate a large-scale Geoglyph Field in Irkutsk Russia, Midnight Science Vol. 1 (2011-2012), Paper 4.
- D. Cunningham, The Nazca Lines of Irkutsk in Russia: And the Possible discovery of a New Geoglyph Field at Nullarbor Plain in Australia, Midnight Science Vol. 1 (2011-2012), Paper 5.
- D. Cunningham, Three Enclosures: A comparison between Chinese star Charts and the Cygnus Earth Map, Midnight Science Vol. 2 (2011-2012), Paper 1.
- D. Cunningham, The 14,000 Year Old Road Map, Midnight Science Vol. 2 (2011-2012), Paper 2.
- D. Cunningham, Analysis of the Proposed Iona/Mull Geoglyph Site: A Preliminary Study showing a possible link to The Kiribati Island Chain and the discovery of a possible new geoglyph at Quillaicillo in Chile, Midnight Science Vol. 2 (2011-2012), Paper 3.
- D. Cunningham, Elements in Motion: Translating the Meaning of YHWH (YHVH), Jehova, GOD, Midnight Science Vol. 2 (2011-2012), Paper 4.
- D. Cunningham, The Cygnus Star Map: The Location of Canterbury, and Other British Religious Centers, Midnight Science Vol. 3 (2011-2012), Paper 1.
- D. Cunningham, The Spiral, The Minotaur and the Map of the World, Midnight Science Vol. 3 (2011-2012), Paper 2.
- D. Cunningham, Solving the Pyramids Part I: Evidence of the existence of the Cygnus Star Map and its use to Create a Map of Earth in the Paleolithic Paintings drawn at Lascaux and Cueva di El Castillo, Midnight Science Vol. 3 (2011-2012),Paper 3.
- D. Cunningham, A Possible 50,000 year old drawings of the Cygnus Man: Deciphering the Petroglyphs at the V-bar-V Petroglyph site, Midnight Science Vol. 3 (2011-2012), Paper 4.
- D. Cunningham, Analysis of the Iona/Mull Line Pattern for Internal Scaling Lines: A continuing link between the proposed Scotland geoglyph fields and Kiribati, and the discovery of a spiral-shaped hill, Midnight Science Vol. 4 (2011-2012), Paper 1.
- D. Cunningham, Giza Pyramids Reveal New Secret Hieroglyphs, Midnight Science Vol. 4 (2011-2012) Paper 2.
- D. Cunningham, The Oldest Maps of the World: Deciphering the Hand Paintings of Cueva de El Castillo Cave in Spain and Lascaux in France, Midnight Science Vol. 4 (2011-2012), Paper 3.
- D. Cunningham, Solving the Pyramids Part II: The Map of an Ancient Empire, Midnight Science Vol. 4 (2011-2012), Paper 4.
- D. Cunningham, Ley Lines… Are they real? A possible link between the Giza Pyramids, the V-bar-V petroglyphs, Monks Mound, Snake Mound, Newark Earthworks, the sunken Pyramid of Japan, the Tucume Pyramids, and Harappa, Midnight Science Vol. 4 (2011-2012), Paper 5.
- D. Cunningham, Reanalysis of the Nazca Lines of Irkutsk, Midnight Science Vol. 4 (2011-2012), Paper 6.
- D. Cunningham, Irkutsk Geoglyphs: A randomized study for the Square Petroglyph, Midnight Science Vol. 4 (2011-2012), Paper 7.
- D. Cunningham, The Megalithic Atlas: Connecting the Megalithic Sites of the World, Midnight Science Vol. 4 (2011-2012), Paper 8.
- D. Cunningham, Solving the Pyramids Part III: Use of the Giza Pyramids to create lines of Longitude linked to a 366 day year, Midnight Science Vol. 4 (2011-2012), Paper 9.
- D. Cunningham, The Giza Pyramids: A study of the Megaliths of the USA, Midnight Science Vol. 4 (2011-2012), Paper 10.
- D. Cunningham, Solving the Pyramids Part IV: Greek Myths and the Earth/Star Map – Linking the Pyramids to Greece, Easter Island, and the Canary Islands, Midnight Science Vol. 5, (2011-2013) Paper 1.
- D. Cunningham, Deciphering Lascaux: Use of Paleolithic Paintings in France to Discover a Geoglyph Field in Western Iraq. Midnight Science Vol. 5, (2011-2013) Paper 2.
- D. Cunningham, Deciphering the Iraq Geoglyph Field: Lac A L’eau Claire and its alignment with Nazca and Tiahuanaco, Midnight Science Vol. 5, (2011-2013) Paper 3.
- D. Cunningham, Possible Discovery of Atlantis: The Lascaux Map and the Gulf of Tonkin, Midnight Science Vol. 5 (2011-2013), Paper 4.
- D. Cunningham, Atlantis: A First Tentative Study of “the City” in the Gulf of Tonkin, Midnight Science Vol. 5, (2011-2013) Paper 5.
- D. Cunningham, New Irkutsk-type Geoglyph Field Discovered at Blackwater Lake in Canada, Midnight Science Vol. 5, (2011-2013) Paper 6.
- D. Cunningham, New Underwater City Possibly Discovered off the Coast of Australia, Midnight Science Vol. 5, (2011-2013) Paper 7.
- D. Cunningham, The Presence of Eight Similar Single Line Geoglyphs at sites defined by the Cygnus Earth/Star Map, Midnight Science Vol. 5, (2011-2013) Paper 8.
- D. Cunningham, New Secret Hieroglyphs Discovered at the Great Pyramids, Midnight Science Vol. 6, (2011-2013) Paper 1.
- D. Cunningham, Presence of an Implausibly Large Geoglyph over ancient Mesopotamia?, Midnight Science Vol. 6, (2011-2013) Paper 2.
- D. Cunningham, The “Atlantis Map” of the Mediterranean: A link between Sumerian, Hebrew and Qur’an versions of the Great Flood, Midnight Science Vol. 6, (2011-2013) Paper 3.
- D. Cunningham, At the Center of the “Atlantis Cross”: The Single Line Geoglyphs of Azerbaijan and Turkey, Midnight Science Vol. 6, (2011-2013) Paper 4.
- D. Cunningham, Analysis of the Artwork at Blombos South Africa, Midnight Science Vol. 6, (2011-2013) Paper 5.
- D. Cunningham, Preliminary Data Suggesting the Existence of an Advanced Civilization 400,000 years ago, Midnight Science Vol. 6, (2011-2013) Paper 6.
- D. Cunningham, Analysis of the Calbost Geoglyph Field and Data suggesting a link to a 300,000 year old Astronomical Chart Midnight Science Vol. 6, (2011-2013) Paper 7.
- D. Cunningham, New Single Line Geoglyph Discovered in Libya using a Blombos (South Africa) centered Paleolithic Line of Meridian Midnight Science Vol. 6, (2011-2013) Paper 8.
- D. Cunningham, Analysis of the Iona/Mull and Loch Monar Geoglyph Fields using a Blombos Centered Astronomical Chart, Midnight Science Vol. 6, (2011-2013) Paper 9.
- D.Cunningham, Analysis of the Dunkeld Geoglyph Field using the Blombos centered Meridian, Midnight Science Vol. 6, (2011-2013) Paper 10.
- D. Cunningham, Analysis of the Groove Lines On Uluru (Ayers) Rock: Alignment to the Scotland and Mesopotamia Geoglyph Fields, Midnight Science Vol. 6, (2011-2013) Paper 11.
- D. Cunningham, Use of the Scotland Geoglyph Field to Locate a Possible Second Underwater City off the Coast of Australia, Midnight Science Vol. 6, (2011-2013) Paper 12.
- D. Cunningham, The Use of the Square Grid Glyph to Create a Complete Map of the World’s Megalithic Structures, Midnight Science Vol. 7, (2012-2013) Paper 1.
- D. Cunningham, Plato and the Second Atlantis: Use of Lunar Nutation Values to Analyze the Giza Pyramid World Map and a reanalysis of the link between the Iona/Mull Geoglyph Site and The Kiribati Island Chain, Midnight Science Vol. 7, (2012-2013) Paper 2.
- D. Cunningham, Stonehenge: Its link to the Nazca and Irkutsk Geoglyph Fields, to Tiahuanaco, to the Brazilian Stonehenge at Calcoene and the Australian stonehenge at Wurdi Youang, to the Geoglyphs of Turkey and Azerbaijan and to the Ochre site of Blombos in South Africa. A preliminary analysis of the Stonehenge Site Using Nutation Values as Angles of Alignment, Midnight Science Vol. 7, (2012-2013) Paper 3.
- D. Cunningham, Canada’s Stonehenge at Lac a l’eau Claire: Analysis of Alignment Lines Created using Lunar Nutation Values and a Comparison with Stonehenge in England, Midnight Science Vol. 7, (2012-2013) Paper 4.
- D. Cunningham, Solving the Pyramids Part V: Use of Nutation and Astronomical Values as Alignment Angles to Interpret the Causeways in Front of the Great Pyramids – Observation of a Direct Overlap Between the Pyramids and Stonehenge, Midnight Science Vol. 7, (2012-2013) Paper 5.
- D. Cunningham, Analysis of Callanish Stone Circle using Lunar Nutation Cycle values as alignment angles: Agreement found with data extracted from Stonehenge and the Great Pyramids, and a possible discovery of a new Geoglyph Field in Western Kazakhstan, Midnight Science Vol. 7, (2012-2013) Paper 6.
- D. Cunningham, Solving the Pyramids Part VI: Apparent Confirmation of the Existence and Use of the Cygnus Earth-Star Map in the Paleolithic Period, and Confirmation of an Ancient Link Between Greece, Rome and Mecca: Comparison Between the Location of Single Line Geoglyphs and the Star Positions of Cygnus over Northern Africa, Midnight Science Vol. 7, (2012-2013) Paper 7.
- D. Cunningham, In Search of Long Lost Civilizations: Use of Geoglyphs to Identify the Boundary of Ancient Civilizations, Midnight Science Vol. 7, (2012-2013) Paper 8.
- Joseph Eidelberg, The biblical Hebrew origin of the Japanese people, Gefen Publishing (2005).
- Philip Johan von Strahlenberg,
© 2011 Derek Cunningham; Midnight Science: ISSN 2160-0201; Volume 3, Paper 4.
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